Decorative pattern of handmade silk carpet
Trees are the most commonly used decorations in oriental hand-woven carpets and appear in many forms to form a single garden or a larger layout. In both the stylized and naturalized forms, the tree appears with its symbolic meaning recognized in the East.
It represents the "life of the tree", a symbol of fertility and coherence, and also represents the "axis of the world", connecting the underground (magic world), the earth (human world) and the sky (the world of gods)
The moiré pattern, also known as the "cloud collar" pattern, is derived from Chinese decorative patterns and is composed of rings formed by four or more elements. There are also patterns of four-leaf clover made up of elements like multi-leaf arrows. The pattern alludes to the "gate of heaven", which is the entrance to heaven to learn theology and be protected by it. Sometimes it is used in the middle area of the carpet, but more often it is used at the edges. On the borders of the carpet, cloud bands and four-leaf clover patterns were previously used to emphasize multiple meanings, such as "gateway to heaven", "protected by God" and so on.
The medallion graphic is usually located in the center of the carpet. Protected by the border, it represents the supernatural realm of the gods. It is frequently used in carpets in Persia, Anatolia and the Caucasus. There are many forms, geometric forms, curved forms, or circles, or arches, or polygons. Sometimes there are four corner patterns. In this case, the four secondary elements can protect the center of the carpet. It symbolizes the "gate of the sun" very close to heaven.
Class Medal. The graphic layout of the Class Medal comes from Buddhist symbols and represents the Shakyamuni sitting between two monks. Because of this, the central medallion is different in size and decoration from the two outer medallions. This layout frequently appears in polygonal carpets in the Caucasus and Anatolia.
Prayer patterns and folded prayer rugs are almost as good in symbolism and practical use. The loyal Muslims lay flat on the carpet and fold and pray. The alcove has a practical function. Representing the "arch of heaven" implies that heaven can be reached in daily prayers. At the same time, the niche is also a place where believers can be protected, a place where believers can connect with the gods. The interior is usually decorated as a "tree of life", or a vase, or a water basin used in baptisms, alluding to eternal life, and sometimes there is a lamp of Allah hanging on the top of the vault.
Garden patterns, whether in the East or the West, always associate the concept of garden with heaven. In fact, the word "paradise" is derived from the Persian word (pairideieza). Flowers are everywhere in an ideal garden, and the flow of the river of life represents the ultimate goal of believers.
Persian artists in the seventeenth century used an idealistic perspective to look at their emperor’s gardens to get inspiration. The garden is divided into rectangular or square areas by waterways. Conventional patterns consist of flowers, trees, lawns, and animals.
Portrait patterns, portraits and animal patterns began to appear in Persian carpets in the 16th century, breaking the old customs of Islamic culture. Because the Sunni sect of Islam prohibits figurative expression, it is not allowed to imitate the creation of gods. Today's Sunnis are still loyal to this commandment and more traditional. However, Shia artists in Persia do not strictly abide by this rule. Since figurative art points to spirit and unimaginativeness, it has been adopted. For this reason, these figures are displayed in a naturalistic way, only to express the concept of heaven, and to reflect moral concepts through epic and mythological passages. The figures have no symbolic meaning in the oriental carpets.
Hunting pattern. In the East, hunting is a kind of noble sport that rulers are passionate about. It is a symbol of human dexterity, strength, bravery, and control over nature. At the same time, it also has the meaning of being connected with heaven and has become an important Spiritual representation. In the hunting blanket, the armed ruler cavalry, trophies, vines and flowers covered the entire central area. This carpet was created in the Persian court of the Safavid era and was produced in the court factory in Isfahan. In the process of creating these carpets, artists sometimes inscribed inscriptions. These inscriptions are mainly derived from contemporary miniature paintings and literary works. They are descriptions of the luxurious life of the palace and symbolize paradise.
Animal patterns. The animals on the carpet can be real or fantasy. Some noble animals such as deer, horses, and leopards often appear in scenes with gardens as the background. There are also two fantasy animals from China, the dragon symbolizing unlimited authority and the phoenix symbolizing immortality, which spread to Central Asia in the 14th to 15th centuries. When they appear in pairs, they represent marriage and union, and when fighting each other, they represent the inevitable war between justice and evil. These unions and wars all imply the balance and harmony between the earth and the universe.
Arab vine pattern, representative of Persian decorative patterns since the 16th century. It originated from ancient times and is a flower with sharp horns. It has many different ways of application, such as fans, artichokes, flower buds, grape leaves and so on. Arab vines are very common in Islamic art and are a representative decorative element. Its continuous rhythm, endless repetition. Promoting meditation, abstract forms resist the temptation of excessive worship. At the same time, the vine floral decoration has no head and tail, expressing that the gods are boundless, just like a magical tent, which, while constantly hiding, reveals the gods' scale beyond themselves.
In the seventeenth century, a very detailed and very rich variety of Arabian vines was born in Persia. To commemorate the rulers of Persia during that time, it was called Shah Abbas. The image of palm leaves originated from the lotus flower, which appeared in the graphic records of ancient Egypt. Since the Greek King Alexander's expedition to the East, Western countries have been influenced by Eastern Buddhist culture and developed many Buddhist artistic concepts and patterns, such as palm leaf patterns. It is one of them and has become the most widely used pattern in Persian carpets.
The pine cone pattern, also known as the "Paisley" pattern, together with the "Herati" pattern, are the two most commonly used patterns in hand-woven carpets. The most famous decorative element in the West is Boteh, which is often used on textiles in India and Kashmir, such as the well-known Kashmir shawl. In addition, the spiral pattern with Boteh pattern produced in Paisley, Scotland is very famous, so the pine cone pattern is also called "Paisley" pattern.
Boteh is inspired by its shape, like pine cones, teardrops, cypress leaves bent to one side... There are many sources. Buddha’s tears, feathers, cypress trees, clenched fists, etc. The Boteh pattern is usually expressed in the form of geometry or curves and is used repeatedly and placed in parallel rows so as to cover the entire central area. At the same time, it also appears alone or is supplemented by other decorative elements. Used in edge patterns.
Herati pattern, "Halati" design was widely circulated in the East and developed in the 16th century Persian Safavid era. "Halati" patterns can be expressed in many forms, including many plant elements, usually stems as the main form, so sometimes it is difficult to identify, usually inside the rhombus is a small ring-shaped flower, the outside of the rhombus is Four outwardly curled leaves. Because the narrow and slender leaves are like small fishes, they are also called "Mahi" (Mahi) fish-shaped patterns, derived from the Persian word "fish" , "Halati" design is expressed in a variety of forms, both geometrical and natural. This pattern is the easiest to transform. Since the sixteenth century, it is the most popular pattern in Persia. Sometimes the "Halati" pattern is also used as an edge pattern.
Drum-shaped patterns, like octagonal, hexagonal or rhomboid medallions, are composed of straight lines, leafy, hooked, and jagged, etc. The interior is further divided into different colors Four parts, like eight-pointed star, square, rhombus and rectangle. Some people think that the name "Gul" is derived from Persian plants, which means "flower". But this design is also considered to be derived from ancient nomadic symbols. The drum pattern is a distinctive pattern in products from parts of Central Asia. Because the pattern has changed its form, it is called the "Turkmen" pattern by the name of the Turkmen nomads. This pattern is also mistakenly called the "Bukhara" pattern, named after the city of Bukhara in Uzbekistan that collects and trades but does not manufacture carpets.
Esri Mi Snake Pattern
Snake patterns from Islamic culture, swirling vines, which represent the meaning of eternal life and reincarnation, are mainly used for the outsole and inner border of the carpet. It appeared in Persian carpets in the 16th century, and mainly appeared in Kerman and Mashhad carpet patterns after the 19th century.